Red Dwarf: All Change - Series III - by , February 06, 2020
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Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii 2. Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii 2016. Movie Stream Red Dwarf: All Change - Series iiii. STARmeter SEE RANK Up 16, 190 this week View rank on IMDbPro » Actor, Soundtrack + Add or change photo on IMDbPro Emile Charles was born on June 28, 1971 in Liverpool, England. He is an actor, known for Red Dwarf (1988) The Fruit Machine (1988) and Like It Is (1998. See full bio » Born: June 28, 1971 in Liverpool, England, UK. Movie Stream Red Dwarf: All Change - Series iii iii.

A documentary about the third series of Red Dwarf (1988. Around The Web, Powered by ZergNet Related Items Share this Rating Title: Red Dwarf: All Change - Series III (Video 2003) 8. 5 /10 Want to share IMDb's rating on your own site? Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Login Photos Add Image Add an image Do you have any images for this title? Edit Did You Know? Trivia Created for the DVD release of the third series of Red Dwarf (1988. See more ».

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Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii download. What are the ratings and certificates for Red Dwarf Built to Last - Series IV - 2004 V? Answer Wiki User July 18, 2014 10:05PM Red Dwarf Built to Last - Series IV - 2004 V is rated/received certificates of: UK:12. Movie Stream Red Dwarf: All Change - Series iii b. Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii review. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you're not a robot. For best results, please make sure your browser is accepting cookies. Type the characters you see in this image: Try different image Conditions of Use Privacy Policy 1996-2014, Inc. or its affiliates. Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii 4.

Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii list. Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii free. Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii online. Red Dwarf is a British comedy franchise which primarily comprises twelve series (the ninth being a mini-series) of a television science fiction sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1993 and from 1997 to 1999, and on Dave in 2009 and 2012 and from 2016 to the present, gaining a cult following. The series was created by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. [1] The first six series were written by co-creators Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, while Series VII and VIII were written by Naylor with collaborations from other writers, and Series IX-XII were written by Naylor alone. Series I and II were produced by Paul Jackson Productions (with Grant Naylor Productions taking over from Series III) for BBC North, and broadcast on BBC2. Red Dwarf first aired on 15 February 1988 [2] and ended its original run on BBC2, by then rebranded BBC Two, on 5 April 1999 after eight series, 3] with some PBS stations in the United States airing the entire eighth series earlier on 7 March. [4] From 2009, Grant Naylor Productions produced new episodes for UKTV, which were broadcast on the TV channel Dave. The series follows the fortunes of Dave Lister who is stranded three million years in the future, together with the hologrammatic representation of his former bunkmate and immediate superior Arnold Rimmer; a creature known only as Cat; and the ship's computer Holly. [5] During Series II, the crew encounter a mechanoid called Kryten, who joins them from Series III onwards. [6] In Series VI the Red Dwarf ship has been stolen from the crew, forcing them to travel in the smaller Starbug craft for two series. [7] In Series VII Kristine Kochanski, Lister's former love interest, joins the crew, following the departure of Rimmer. [8] In series VIII the entire crew of the Red Dwarf ship – including a pre-accident Rimmer – are resurrected, but the Starbug crew, along with Rimmer, find themselves sentenced to two years in the ship's brig for "abusing classified information. 9] Series IX ( Red Dwarf: Back to Earth) involves Lister, Rimmer (back as a hologram) Cat, and Kryten hallucinating that they've arrived on Earth in another dimension in the early 21st century, and Series X and XI sees the same four crew members continue their adventures back on Red Dwarf, Kochanski having departed due to Lister's descent into depression and Holly offline due to water damage. The twelfth series of Red Dwarf premiered on 12 October 2017 on Dave. [10] As of 16 November 2017, 73 episodes of Red Dwarf  have aired. Series overview [ edit] Episodes [ edit] Red Dwarf I (1988. edit] The pilot script was written in 1983; the writing duo team of Grant and Naylor handed the finished script to their agent Paul Jackson who had trouble convincing the BBC to take on the series. [12] 13] Three years after the initial rejections, the script was accepted by BBC North West. [14] The series almost did not happen due to an electricians' strike at the BBC in 1987 which prevented filming and the project was shelved. [15] Filming eventually went ahead after the industrial action was resolved. [16] A remastered version of this series was produced and broadcast in some countries. Red Dwarf II (1988. edit] Realising that they were limited with stories based on the huge, but empty, mining ship of Red Dwarf, writers Grant and Naylor decided to go in a different direction for Series II. A small shuttle ship, Blue Midget, was designed to ferry the crew to and from different locations. [17] The mechanoid, Kryten, appeared in the first episode as a one off. The writers had resisted using robot characters as they had considered the practice a sci-fi cliché. [17] A remastered version of this series was produced and broadcast in some countries. Red Dwarf III (1989. edit] With Grant and Naylor directly involved with the series' production, under Grant Naylor Productions, they radically changed the look of the show. [18] The opening credits sequence was changed. A new upbeat version of the theme tune played over clips from the series. [19] A new official Red Dwarf logo also appeared at the end of the credit sequence. [18] Starbug was introduced as the new spaceship in place of Blue Midget. [20] The look of the show had been overhauled with the incoming Mel Bibby who had re-designed the old grey sets. [21] Costumes were overhauled as well, as costume designer Howard Burden brought in a new stylish look to the crew. [22] A remastered version of this series was produced and broadcast in some countries. There were a number of loose ends from the first two series, and changes in the third series, that were explained off by a text intro to the first show of Series III. This was done in the form of scrolling text across outer space, in a parody of the introductions to the Star Wars movies. The loose ends included the return of Kryten, Lister being pregnant, delivering twins Jim and Bexley, who grow up in a matter of days, then wind up in the parallel universe with the female version of Lister. The regular cast changed for Series III: Robert Llewellyn came in as Kryten, and Hattie Hayridge replaced the departing Lovett. [23] Craig Charles, Chris Barrie and Danny John-Jules remained as Lister, Rimmer and Cat respectively. [24] The character of Kryten was originally intended as a one-off appearance in the series-two episode " Kryten. but had returned mainly to broaden the story potential. The show was becoming difficult to write for. At the insistence of Naylor, Kryten returned to complete the team. [25] They had approached David Ross with the intention of bringing him back to play the regular role of Kryten. Ross, however, was in a stage play Flea In Her Ear and was not available, so they went to see Robert Llewellyn. Llewellyn was also in a stage show called Mammon: Robot Born of Woman, playing a robot. They saw his performance and were impressed. [25] Red Dwarf IV (1991. edit] Due to the old studio in Manchester undergoing refurbishment, the recording of Series IV moved to Shepperton Studios. [26] Series IV was not broadcast as originally intended. The BBC had decided to start off with the romantic story of "Camille" for Valentine's Day. [27] The Gulf War outbreak also affected the series running order as both the anti-war "Meltdown" and heroic Ace Rimmer's "Dimension Jump" episodes were postponed. [28] Red Dwarf V (1992. edit] The series returned without regular director Ed Bye, who had agreed to direct his wife Ruby Wax 's television show The Full Wax. [29] New director Juliet May found it hard to work with the science fiction elements of the series [30] and left before the series had completed. The remaining episodes were directed by Grant and Naylor. [31] Red Dwarf VI (1993. edit] The writing of Series VI was rushed due to the fact that the BBC wanted the episodes completed as soon as possible. Grant and Naylor had originally hoped to both write and direct Series VI, but the rapid production schedule meant this was unfeasible, and Andy de Emmony was brought in to direct the series. The writers decided to make changes for the new series – Red Dwarf itself was written out, thus removing Hattie Hayridge's Holly – and the series was set entirely aboard Starbug. During the series Rimmer would also obtain "hardlight" which would effectively give him a physical presence. For the first time in the series history a story arc was introduced and followed throughout the episodes leading up to the series cliffhanger. [32] Red Dwarf VII (1997. edit] After Series VI, co-creator and writer Rob Grant had decided to leave the series to pursue other non- Red Dwarf projects. [33] Naylor continued with the series to build towards the often discussed movie. To help with the expanding episode number, Naylor brought in the help of other writers like Paul Alexander. Chris Barrie, disappointed with the hectic workload of series VI, had decided to only take part in four of the episodes. Kochanski (now played by Chloë Annett) was brought back as a regular character. [34] Changes to the show itself were evident with the mix of science fiction and sit-com episodes throughout. This was an attempt by Naylor to move away from the " monster of the week " format that he felt Series VI suffered from. [34] Ed Bye also returned to direct the series after leaving due to scheduling clashes during Series V. The studio audience was now removed from the series and, much like feature-length films, the episodes were mostly shot using one camera. [35] Episodes were still videotaped, but were digitally processed to look like film, and although there was no live audience, a laughter track was later recorded at a screening of the episodes before an audience. [36] Red Dwarf VIII (1999. edit] Having changed the look and format for Series VII, Naylor returned to the show's roots for Series VIII. Writing the series himself, Naylor resurrected the original Red Dwarf crew, along with Holly, played again by Norman Lovett, and Chris Barrie as Rimmer. [37] With the old cast and Red Dwarf back, the series moved back to being videotaped in front of a studio audience. [38] The series ended on a cliffhanger that remained unresolved until 2009's Red Dwarf: Back to Earth. [37] With 52 episodes the show was now in a good position for international syndication and the prospect of a feature-length film increased. [4] KTEH, a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) station in San Jose, California, broadcast the entire series on 7 March 1999. As a result, they broadcast the last five episodes of Series VIII before they were aired in the UK. "Cassandra" was also broadcast on other PBS stations on 7 March 1999 as well. [39] Red Dwarf: Back to Earth (2009. edit] In 2009, UKTV channel Dave screened three new 25-minute specials to celebrate the 21st anniversary of the show. The new episodes form part of an effort by Dave to screen more original programming, instead of just repeats. The specials were made up of a three-part story, Back to Earth" as well as a "Making-of" special. Originally, there were to be two episodes, a "Making-of" and a live show titled Red Dwarf: Unplugged. However, according to Robert Llewellyn on Twitter, the Live Show had been cancelled due to time and money, and that there would be three episodes instead. [40] As with series 7, these episodes were not filmed in front of a live studio audience; however, unlike the seventh series, it was not shown to an audience at a later date to record the audience laughter. Red Dwarf X (2012. edit] Red Dwarf returned for its first full series since 1999 in October 2012 for six new episodes written by Doug Naylor filmed before a live audience. [41] It was released on DVD and Blu-ray on 19 November 2012. [42] 43] All four original cast members from Back to Earth reprised their roles. Red Dwarf XI (2016. edit] It was confirmed on 2 May 2015 that an eleventh and twelfth series of Red Dwarf (consisting of six episodes each) would be filmed in late 2015 and early 2016 for Dave. After the announcement, Craig Charles resigned his role on Coronation Street to focus on filming for both new series. Red Dwarf XI began broadcast in September 2016. [44] Red Dwarf XII (2017. edit] Filming on Red Dwarf XII began in early 2016. [44] 45] Special (2020. edit] UKTV announced in October 2019 that a feature length special is in production, to air in 2020. [46] Unproduced scripts [ edit] Bodysnatcher. edit] Originally to be the second episode of Series I, and would have involved Rimmer going insane trying to deal with his intangibility and attempting to build himself a new body by stealing parts of Lister's, and Lister trying to live with a hologram of himself. The former idea was, in a way, used in the episode "Bodyswap" in Series III, and the latter became the basis for "Me 2. with the plotline transferred from Lister to Rimmer) which filled the sixth spot in the first series after "Bodysnatcher" was dropped. [47] Dad. edit] Dad " is the title of a so-called "lost episode. The planned first episode of the show's third series was never filmed or even fully scripted: writers Rob Grant and Doug Naylor abandoned it halfway through writing it. Instead, a comically-fast Star Wars opening crawl provided exposition for the transition to the next series of episodes. The basic events of the episode (which would have explained various changes to the show's setting, e. g. what happened with Lister's pregnancy, why former guest character Kryten had reappeared and become a regular member of the cast and what had happened to him, and why Holly's image had changed from a male to a female) were written into a pre-title Star Wars -eque scroll sequence of the episode " Backwards. which became the new Series III premiere. Jokes from the script were also worked into other episodes: for example, Lister's revealing that he was abandoned at birth and Rimmer's subsequent speculation that Lister was the product of brother-sister incest was written into the episode " The Last Day. An extract of the unfinished script of "Dad" was included on the DVD release Red Dwarf: The Bodysnatcher Collection alongside several other such extracts. [48] In the same style as the eponymous "lost episode. Bodysnatcher. the extract of "Dad" was animated in a storyboard style as the script itself was read by lead actor Chris Barrie (who, being a skilled impressionist, supplied the voices of all the characters. 49] Dad" would have been the opening episode to the third series of the show. In plot, it was to be a direct continuation of the preceding episode. Parallel Universe. the final episode of the second series. In that last episode, Lister had slept with a female version of himself in a parallel dimension, before finding out that he was pregnant, as in that particular dimension it is the men who bear children. The following "Dad" episode was to cover a number of points in the show, but was to primarily deal with Lister's pregnancy. The idea was ultimately rejected by the show's writers and producers, Rob Grant and Doug Naylor, who felt that the script was not as funny as previous episodes. [50] In The Red Dwarf Programme Guide, Chris Howarth and Steve Lyons write that another reason "Dad" was rejected was because it was possibly sexist. [51] The released script extract shows that "Dad" would not have followed the pre-credits sequence of "Backwards" to the letter. For example, Lister would not have been pregnant with twins: instead he would give birth to a single son. [52] Also, apparently Lister would have rebuilt Kryten while "heavily pregnant" and not "shortly afterwards" as the pre-title "Backwards" scroll suggests. Additionally, unless male Holly actor Norman Lovett was to make a guest appearance in the episode it is likely that Holly would have first appeared as a female at the very beginning of the episode. Some of the events were referenced in the pre-title sequence of the episode "Backwards. The text explains the changes that were made going from series two to three; however, the scrolling was intentionally sped up faster than viewers could actually read for the purposes of comedy. "Identity Within. edit] This episode was going to be in Series VII but was replaced by "Duct Soup" for budgetary reasons. A reconstructed version of the episode, read by Chris Barrie) appears on the Series VII DVD release. [47] 53] The Cat is fatally ill, with only one cure: he has to have sex. They travel to a GELF village, where a female cat called Aura is being held prisoner for auction. Lister, Rimmer and Kryten have to save Aura and get her to fall in love with the Cat before he dies from being a virgin. This events are loosely revisited in the Series XI finale "Can of Worms" where it's revealed that the Cat is a virgin and ends up losing his virginity to a Polymorph disguised as a fellow cat. Feature film [ edit] Once Series VIII ended in 1999, Doug Naylor attempted to make a feature-length version of the show. A script was written, by Naylor, and flyers began circulating around certain websites. [54] The flyer outlined the movie's plot, set in the distant future where Homo Sapienoids—a fearsome flesh-machine hybrid race—had taken over the solar system and were wiping out the human race. Spaceships that tried to escape Earth were hunted down until only one remained. Red Dwarf. [55] Pre-production began in 2004 and filming was planned for 2005. [55] However, sufficient funding was not forthcoming and production was put on hold. [56] American pilots [ edit] See Red Dwarf#U. S. version Two versions of a pilot episode for a proposed NBC version of Red Dwarf were produced in 1992—a complete episode and a partial episode compiled with different cast members. Neither has been televised, though excerpts from the first pilot have been released on the Red Dwarf V DVD set. References [ edit] "Worldwide Press Office - Red Dwarf on DVD. BBC. Retrieved 28 November 2009. ^ BBC – Programme Catalogue – RED DWARF – THE END. Retrieved 4 January 2008. ^ BBC – Programme Catalogue – RED DWARF – ONLY THE GOOD. Retrieved 4 January 2008. ^ a b "Series VIII: Aftermath. Red Dwarf - The Official Website. Retrieved 11 May 2015. ^ Howarth & Lyons 1993, pp. 45–46. ^ Howarth & Lyons 1993, p. 52. ^ Series VI review at Sci-Fi Weekly. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 20 February 2008. ^ Series VII review at DVD Active. Retrieved 20 February 2008. ^ Naylor, Doug (writer) Bye, Ed (director) 4 March 1999. Part Three. Back in the Red. Event occurs at 24:46. BBC Two. ^ Begin Again. Again - News - Red Dwarf - The Official Website. Retrieved 12 August 2016. ^ Red Dwarf feature-length special on the way in 2020. Den of Geek. ^ Howarth & Lyons 1993, pp. 3–4. ^ Red Dwarf The End (1988) Full cast and crew. Retrieved 22 January 2008. ^ Howarth & Lyons 1993, p. 5. ^ screenonline: Red Dwarf. Retrieved 23 January 2008. ^ Howarth & Lyons 1993, p. 6. ^ a b "Series II Writing. Retrieved 7 January 2008. ^ a b "Series III Production. Retrieved 7 January 2008. ^ Series III Music. Retrieved 7 January 2008. ^ Interview: Peter Wragg, Red Dwarf Smegazine, issue 8, October 1992, Fleetway Editions Ltd, ISSN 0965-5603 ^ Series III Sets. Retrieved 7 January 2008. ^ Series III Costumes. Retrieved 7 January 2008. ^ Interview: Norman Lovett, Red Dwarf Smegazine, issue 9, November 1992, Fleetway Editions Ltd, ISSN 0965-5603 ^ Backwards cast and crew. Retrieved 25 January 2008. ^ a b Interview: Grant Naylor, Red Dwarf Smegazine, issue 6, August 1992, Fleetway Editions Ltd, ISSN 0965-5603 ^ Series IV changes. Retrieved 28 January 2008. ^ Howarth, Chris; Steve Lyons (1993. Section 1: The History. Red Dwarf Programme Guide. Virgin Books. ISBN   0-86369-682-1. ^ Series IV Aftermath. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ Interview: Ed Bye, Red Dwarf Smegazine, issue 12, February 1993, Fleetway Editions Ltd, ISSN 0965-5603 ^ Series V Production. Retrieved 7 January 2008. ^ Grant and Naylor Look Back, Red Dwarf Smegazine, issue 11, January 1993, Fleetway Editions Ltd, issn 0965-5603 ^ Series VI Writing. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ Series VI Aftermath. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ a b "Series VII Writing. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ Series VII Production. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ Back From the Dead, a featurette included on the DVD release Red Dwarf VII (BBC Video, 2005) a b "Series VIII Writing. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ Series VIII Production. Retrieved 12 December 2007. ^ Howarth, Chris; Lyons, Steve (2000. London: Virgin Publishing Limited. p. 180. ISBN   0753504022. ^ Red Dwarf to reunite on Dave. Broadcast. 27 August 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2008. ^ Red Dwarf: new series now 100% confirmed, due 2012. Den of Geek. ^ Red Dwarf X [DVD. ^ Red Dwarf X [Blu-ray. ^ a b "Red Dwarf XI - Coming Soon - News - Red Dwarf - The Official Website. Retrieved 12 August 2016. ^ Begin Again. Again. Retrieved 12 August 2017. ^ a b "The Bodysnatcher Collection. Retrieved 28 December 2011. ^ The Bodysnatcher Collection. Retrieved 6 October 2018. ^ Script Extracts. Retrieved 6 October 2018. ^ The Red Dwarf Interview: Grant Naylor. Red Dwarf Smegazine. July 1992. p. 16. ^ Howarth, Chris; Lyons, Steve (2000. Red Dwarf: Programme Guide. Virgin. ISBN   9780753504024. ^ Red Dwarf series VII Writing. Red. Retrieved 28 December 2011. ^ Making The Movie. Retrieved 28 December 2011. ^ a b "Red Dwarf The movie. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008. ^ Red Dwarf – The Movie That Never Was. Retrieved 7 February 2008. Bibliography [ edit] Red Dwarf – Episode Guide. British Comedy Guide. Retrieved 15 April 2009. "Red Dwarf episode guide. Retrieved 7 February 2008. Howarth, Chris; Lyons, Steve (1993. ISBN   0-86369-682-1. External links [ edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Red Dwarf List of Red Dwarf episodes at List of  Red Dwarf  episodes at British Comedy Guide List of Red Dwarf episodes on IMDb List of Red Dwarf: Back to Earth episodes on IMDb.

Putting together a list of the Top 20 episodes of Red Dwarf presented an unusual challenge. The truth is, theres barely a bum note in the first 36 episodes (Series I – VI) and then its a case of finding the quality episodes among the less successful half hours in the following 31 (Series VII – XI. The most accurate ‘top 20 would be composed almost entirely of episodes from those first 36. However, for this list, weve resisted the urge to simply list most of the first six series and have deliberately ensured that this selection covers a reasonable span of the show, with every series except IX represented somewhere. This way, we can offer a more balanced overview of the whole history of the show, and highlight the really quite good elements of the later series, rather than allowing them to be completely over-shadowed by earlier successes. And so, to the inevitably highly subjective list. Feel free to register polite disagreement in the comments! 20. Can Of Worms (Series XI) Cat: It still counts! While Rimmer and Lister are really rather well-developed characters and Kryten has had his fair share of moments in the spotlight, Holly and the Cat have had exactly two spotlight episodes each out of 67. And while Holly, who has been in considerably fewer episodes anyway, is lucky enough to get some all-time classics (see below) neither of the Cats spotlight episodes are entirely up there with the greats. His long-awaited moment in the sun is at least the strongest half hour of Series XI and features some classic Red Dwarf humour. Re-visiting the polymorph might seem a bit like recycling old ideas, but here its used to give the Cat his first ever bit of real character development as he finally pops his cherry (discounting virtual reality) and results in an all-male crew of whom 50% have given birth, which is, shall we say, unique. Plus the Cats pink maternity clothes are pretty funny. 19. Stoke Me A Clipper (Series VII) Rimmer: Its my destiny to be a smug, self-satisfied git? Its always a good sign when any episode features Ace Rimmer, a character whose ridiculously overblown charisma and jolly attitude lights up Red Dwarf s often drab world. Much of the humour comes from the extreme contrast between Ace and the Rimmer we know, so seeing ‘our Rimmer pretending to be Ace is a nice twist. More importantly, in this episode we say goodbye (for now) to the Rimmer weve known for the first six years of the show, and this story gives him a sweet send-off, and a satisfying conclusion to his character development over the course of the series so far. 18. Future Echoes (Series I) Rimmer: If you had two people coming for a job, and one of them was dead, which one would you pick? The set-up of Red Dwarf is spectacularly bleak – Lister is alone in the universe apart from a hologram he doesnt like, a highly evolved cat and a computer. Much of the first two series plays off the sadness and loneliness of that situation, while providing occasional diversions or rays of hope that his situation might, somehow, someday, change. This second episode does that in style, both confirming that you cant fight fate, and offering the ray of hope that Lister will somehow end up with two baby sons. Its also very funny, and introduces fan favourite minor character Talkie Toaster, the most annoying home appliance in the universe. 17. Cassandra (Series VIII) Kochanski/Rimmer: Its coming true! Its all coming true! A direct sequel of sorts to Future Echoes (the former episode is even name-checked in the script) this is a more obvious rumination on fate and destiny, featuring a prophetic computer named after a mythological priestess who was cursed to provide accurate prophecies that no one would ever believe. Cassandra is also the highlight of the not-overly-popular Series VIII, returning to the theme of Star Trek -inspired space exploration and featuring a great guest performance by Geraldine McEwan. The plot also benefits from and makes the best use of the presence of Human Rimmer in this series – the audience is primed to expect Rimmer to die again at some point and restore the status quo, so when Cassandra makes her prophecy, it carries more weight than the usual empty threats to kill off regular characters. 16. Camille (Series IV) Kryten: It's the old story: droid meets droid, droid becomes chameleon, droid loses chameleon, chameleon turns into blob, droid gets blob back again, blob meets blob, blob goes off with blob and droid loses blob, chameleon and droid. How many times have we heard that story? Red Dwarf s spoofs and pastiches of famous films or television shows have usually (with the possible exception of Series IX) been rather good, and this homage to Casablanca is one of their best. With Robert Llewellyns real life wife Judy Pascoe playing Krytens love interest Camille, the show presents a rather sweet but importantly also hilarious love story. As a side-note, it is also confirmed that the Cats one true love is, of course, himself, which to be honest we all more or less knew already. 15. White Hole (Series IV) Cat: So what is it? Female Hollys only major episode, White Hole also features the return of Talkie Toaster, a very funny time loop scene, Kryten being used as a battering ram and Lister getting drunk and playing pool with planets. Rimmers cowardice is another highlight, as he (perhaps wisely) refuses to follow the example of Captain Oates. Its the toaster thats really the star of the piece though, Hollys increasing exasperation only making each infuriating toast-based question funnier and funnier. 14. Holoship (Series V) Rimmer: Over the years I have come to regard you as. people. I met. " Series V was a real high point for the show, and is, we admit, rather over-represented on this list. But thats with good reason. Holoship, the first episode to be screened, sets the bar high, with great guest performances from Jane Horrocks and Don Warrington, Rimmer finally getting laid (twice in one lifetime. and Lister eating a cigarette. Like Camille, it offers up a genuinely sweet love story in a properly funny setting. Geronimo! 13. Lemons (Series X) Lister: Im not fighting you, Jesus! Itll be like punching Ghandi! Series X was a real return to form for the show, and at least two other episodes very nearly made the list ( Fathers And Suns, a very funny and rather sweet exploration of Listers complicated family situation, and Trojan, which returns to the rich well of Rimmers family issues. However, we plumped for Lemons, for being both very funny and probably the most memorable half hour from Series X. The twist at the end is fairly easy to see coming but the episode is no less successful for that, and the art direction and staging (including a compulsory homage to Da Vincis Last Supper) add to the fun. 12. Better Than Life (Series II) Lister: Proper dumplings, when theyre properly cooked to perfection, proper dumplings, should not bounce. " Red Dwarf has shown us glimpses of Rimmers psyche a few times, and the results are never pretty. In this case, an attempt to cheer him up after he receives some bad news in the 3 million-years-delayed mail backfires horribly on Lister and the Cat, as a virtual reality game designed to make their wishes real turns on them when Rimmers mind cant accept nice things happening to him. This episode also features one of two rather sweet heart-to-hearts between Rimmer and Lister on the ships observation deck, and the Cats mermaid girlfriend, who is a fish on top and a woman on the bottom (the reverse would be "a stupid way around. 11. Dimension Jump (Series IV) Everyone: What a guy! The episode that introduced Ace Rimmer and his journey across dimensions, giving us a Rimmer who is the polar opposite of his normal self as a result of an early lesson in self-deprecation. While our universes Rimmer blames everyone around him for his failings, Ace holds a much more positive view of other people, and they in turn respond much more positively to him. The character is so gloriously over-the-top, from the wig to the flight suit to the deep voice to the James Bond-style ability to pull anyone around of either gender, hes just too much fun to keep around. This episode also provides a rare opportunity to see Robert Llewellyns actual face and Hattie Hayridges legs. 10. The Inquisitor (Series V) Cat: Some might say Im a pretty shallow guy – but a shallow guy with a great ass. " Red Dwarf s occasional forays into philosophy are often quite successful, and this is a good one. The science fiction of the plot is unusual and nicely worked out – the twist that the morally ‘better characters are the ones who have failed to justify their existence by not living up to their own standards is an interesting one, while there is plenty of humour in Kryten and Listers attempts to avoid being wiped out of history. This episode also informed us that Rimmers middle name is Judas, adding to his parents somewhat unusual approach to Christianity already referenced (their Bible had a misprint and they are, as a result, Seventh Day Advent Hoppists. 9. Quarantine (Series V) Rimmer: Mr Flibbles very cross. " Just hilarious from start to finish. From Dr Langstrom introducing herself as “quite, quite mad” to the observation that no one they meet can shoot straight, to Lister, Kryten and the Cat cooped up together in quarantine, to Rimmer in pigtails, a gingham dress and army boots and of course, the gloriously evil Mr Flibble – there is nothing about this episode that is not belly-achingly funny. Is this the overall funniest half hour Red Dwarf ever made? Opinions will vary – but its a contender for sure. 8. Backwards (Series III) Lister: Its not a bar-room brawl – its a bar-room tidy! Red Dwarf underwent the first of several major makeovers at the beginning of Series III, but this opening episode assured fans that it was as funny as ever, while the introduction of new ship Starbug heralded an expanding of its horizons beyond the ship itself and the occasional quarry. Kryten, bumped up to a regular and re-cast after an initial appearance in Series II, fits right in straight away, while the Cat and Listers famous opening conversation about going to bed with Wilma Flintstone eases viewers into the new reality with some cracking one-liners. Add to that the always-amusing backwards dialogue and the bar-room tidy, and you have a classic episode on your hands. 7. The End (Series I) Lister: Are you trying to tell me everybodys dead? You wouldnt imagine that the pick of hilarious lines from a sitcom pilot would be the above, would you? Context is everything, of course. Hollys repeated and increasingly exasperated insistence that "everybodys dead Dave" turns an incredibly traumatic situation – a man wakes up to find everyone he knows and loves dead, and understandably has trouble processing this information – into a classic comic scene. Red Dwarf perfectly balances comedy and tragedy, and this sets the tone for not only the first two series, but the show as a whole. The further the show strays from that central concept – a man almost entirely alone in deep space – the weaker it tends to be. This black humour with a touch of melancholy is Red Dwarf s key strength, and it plays to it from day one. 6. Kryten (Series II) Rimmer: Our first contact with intelligent life in three million and two years, and its the android version of Norman Bates. " There are so many hilarious scenes in this episode – Lister getting ready to go out on the pull, Rimmers first request to be called ‘Ace, the Cat unable to drag himself away from the mirror and everyones reactions on meeting the three lovely ladies from Krytens crew. Among all that, the introduction of Kryten himself, played here by David Ross, would prove to be far more significant than anyone realised at the time. His early attempts at rebellion are both satisfying and very funny, and its here that he forges a friendship with Lister that will endure for decades. 5. Gunmen Of The Apocalypse (Series VI) Kryten: And you, sir. Theres something familiar about you. I get a name. Smeeeee. Smeeeeeeg. Heeeeeeed. " An Emmy-award-winning episode, this features another foray into virtual reality, this time in an attempt to get into Krytens brain, which for reasons its best not to enquire about, has converted his battle against a computer virus to a Western. Who cares why, the episode is huge amounts of fun, with some fairly impressive production values for a 1990s BBC budget and a solid story with a really energising payoff. The virtual reality games are lovingly detailed, while our heroes attempts to be cowboys are predictably amusing. Plus the Cat finally gets to have a good idea, almost immediately followed by another one, giving him an unprecedented winning streak. 4. Polymorph (Series III) Rimmer: Well, I cant say Im totally shocked. Youll bonk anything, wont you Lister? The whole of this episode is very funny, featuring as it does Lister sleeping with a genetically engineered life form disguised as Rimmers mum, the Campaign for the Liberation and Integration of Terrifying Organisms and their Rehabilitation Into Society, the Cat without his cool and Kryten without his guilt chip. What really pushes it into the top five, though, is the early scene in which the polymorph interrupts Listers breakfast, which slowly escalates until Lister ends up jerking up and down on the floor with Kryten on top of him, groinal attachment flying around, desperately trying to remove his boxers. Call us childish if you like, but thats some comedy gold right there. 3. Queeg (Series II) Holly: This is the jape of the decade. April, May, June, July and August Fool. " Holly may be somewhat in the background most of the time, but the moral of this episode is ‘appreciate what youve got, because basically, Im fantastic – and he really is. Lister losing his pea, the crew being forced to work for their food, Rimmer running in his sleep and Holly as the night watchman are all very funny, but its the climactic reveal that absolutely makes the episode. Holly, we bow down before you – you are, indeed, fantastic. 2. Marooned (Series III) Rimmer: Believe it or not Lister, he told me that in a past incarnation, I was Alexander the Greats chief eunuch. " Almost entirely a two-hander between Lister and Rimmer, both Craig Charles and Chris Barrie put in great performances here to produce an episode that is funny, touching, squick-inducing (dog food being only one of the various unpleasant things Lister has eaten over the course of the show) and entirely true to both characters. The core of the show is that these two people are trapped in space with not much more than each other for company, and this episode offers the purest possible distillation of that core concept, and shines all the more for it. 1. Back To Reality (Series V) Rimmer: Im on the run from the Fascist Police with a murderer and a mass murderer and a man in a Bri-Nylon shirt! When this episode was originally broadcast as the final episode of Series V (though it was written first) it was thought that it might be the final ever episode of the show. With that in mind, the structure of the episode is especially clever, for the reveal that none of the episodes major events are real comes at just the right point, about two thirds of the way through the episode. This reveal is late enough that it was just possible that all this was really happening, and that this was how the show would end, with the characters returning to their ‘real lives after playing a particularly immersive virtual reality game. However, once Kryten commits murder and Lister finds out that he ‘changes people from being alive people to being dead people, the plausibility of the scenario starts to fall apart - and the truth is revealed, allowing for a both cost-saving and side-splittingly hilarious scene in which Holly watches the crew act out a chase scene in the cabin on Starbug. With a memorable guest performance from Timothy Spall and the introduction of the Cats geeky alter ego Duane Dibbly, this episode is remembered as a classic for all the right reasons.

Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii ii.


Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii 3. Information Site Rules - Requests - Changelog Top Users You can now use or to access the site! Protect Yourself & Support the Site Latest Comments Vikings S6 E10 duke: Hahaha that was a laughable. i wish i can line up the writers and shoot them one by one... The Fare Trent: This is a once in a lifetime time movie. It is not like anything you have ever seen befor... Top Comments Judge John Deed Alien: Oh I love Martin Shaw! Thank you, uploader, and thank you for using Mixdrop.

Movie stream red dwarf: all change - series iii movie.
Movie Stream Red Dwarf: All Change - Series iii.u.
This article is about the British comedy franchise. For the type of star, see Red dwarf. Red Dwarf Red Dwarf logo (1992–99) Genre Sitcom, Science fiction Created by Grant Naylor ( Rob Grant and Doug Naylor) Based on Dave Hollins: Space Cadet by Rob Grant Doug Naylor Directed by Ed Bye (1988–91, 1997–99) Juliet May (1992) Grant Naylor (1992) Andy de Emmony (1993) Doug Naylor (2009, 2012–present) Starring Craig Charles Chris Barrie Danny John-Jules Robert Llewellyn Chloë Annett Norman Lovett Hattie Hayridge Country of origin United Kingdom Original language(s) English No. of series 12 No. of episodes 73 ( list of episodes) Production Executive producer(s) Paul Jackson (1988–90) Doug Naylor Rob Grant Henry Normal (2016–present) Producer(s) Ed Bye (1988–91, 1997–99) Hilary Bevan-Jones (1992) Justin Judd (1993) Jo Howard and Helen Norman (2009) Richard Naylor (2012–) Kerry Waddell (2016–present) Camera setup Tape (1988–93, 1997–99) Digital (2009, 2012–present) Multi-camera (Series 1–6, 8, 10–present) Single-camera (Series 7, Back to Earth) Running time 28–30 minutes (Series 1–8, 10-present) 25 minutes (per part. Back to Earth) 90 minutes ( Special) Production company(s) Paul Jackson Productions (1988–90) Grant Naylor (1989–) Baby Cow Productions (2016–) Budget 250, 000 per episode Release Original network BBC Two (1988–93, 1997–99) Dave (2009, 2012–present) Picture format 576i (1988–93, 1997–99) 576i (2009, 2012–present) 1080i (2009, 2012–present) Original release Original run: 15 February 1988 – 5 April 1999 Revival serial: 10 – 12 April 2009 Current run: 4 October 2012 – present External links Official website Red Dwarf is a British science fiction comedy franchise which primarily consists of a television sitcom that aired on BBC Two between 1988 and 1999, and on Dave since 2009, gaining a cult following. [1] To date, eleven full series of the show have aired, plus one "special" miniseries. The most recent, Red Dwarf XII, started airing in October 2017. [2] The series was created by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. In addition to the television episodes, there are four novels, a radio version adapted from the audiobooks, two unaired pilot episodes for an American version of the show, tie-in books, magazines and other merchandise. Set on the eponymous mining spaceship, the main characters are Dave Lister, initially the last-known human alive, and Arnold Rimmer, a hologram of Lister's deceased bunkmate. The other members of the crew are Cat, a life form which evolved from the descendants of Lister's pregnant pet cat Frankenstein; Holly, Red Dwarf 's computer (series I–V, VIII and briefly in the final episodes of VII, XII) Kryten, a service mechanoid (series II–present) and Kristine Kochanski, an alternative-reality version of Lister's love interest (series VII–VIII. One of the series' highest accolades came in 1994, when an episode from the sixth series. Gunmen of the Apocalypse. won an International Emmy Award in the Popular Arts category, and in the same year the series was also awarded "Best BBC Comedy Series" at the British Comedy Awards. [3] The series attracted its highest ratings, of more than eight million viewers, during the eighth series in 1999. [4] The revived series on digital channel Dave has consistently delivered some of the highest ratings for non-Public Service Broadcasting commissions in the UK. [5] 6] 7] The show has been critically acclaimed, and has a Metacritic score of 84/100. [8] Series XI was voted "Best Returning TV Sitcom" and "Comedy of the Year" for 2016 by readers for the British Comedy Guide. [9] In a 2019 ranking by Empire, Red Dwarf came 80 on a list of the 100 best TV shows of all time. [10] Setting and plot [ edit] Red Dwarf's current design from Series X onwards The main setting of the series is the eponymous mining spaceship Red Dwarf. [11] In the first episode, set sometime in the late 22nd century, an on-board radiation leak kills everyone except lowest-ranking technician Dave Lister, who is in suspended animation at the time, and his pregnant cat, Frankenstein, who is safe in the cargo hold. [12] Following the accident, the ship's computer Holly keeps Lister in stasis until the radiation levels return to normal—a process that takes three million years. [12] Lister therefore emerges as the last human being in the universe—but not alone on-board the ship. [13] His former bunkmate and immediate superior Arnold Judas Rimmer (a character plagued by failure) is resurrected by Holly as a hologram to keep Lister sane. They are joined by a creature known only as Cat, the last member of a race of humanoid felines that evolved in the ship's hold from Lister's pregnant cat during the 3 million years that Lister was in stasis. [13] The series revolves around Lister being the last human alive, 3 million years from Earth, with his companions. The crew encounters phenomena such as time distortions, faster-than-light travel, mutant diseases and strange lifeforms (all evolved from Earth, because the series has no aliens) that had developed in the intervening millions of years. [14] Though it has a science fiction setting, much of the humour comes from the interactions of the characters, particularly the laid-back Lister and the stuck-up Rimmer. Despite the pastiche of science fiction used as a backdrop, Red Dwarf is primarily a character-driven comedy, with science fiction elements used as complementary plot devices. [15] Especially in the early episodes, a recurring source of comedy was the Odd Couple -style relationship between the two central characters of the show, who have an intense dislike for each other yet are trapped together deep in space. In Series III, the computer Holly changes from male ( Norman Lovett) to female ( Hattie Hayridge) and the mechanoid Kryten (who had appeared in one episode in Series II [16] joins the crew and becomes a regular character. [17] In Series VI, a story arc is introduced where Red Dwarf has been stolen, and the crew pursues it in the smaller Starbug craft, with the side effect that the character Holly disappears. [18] Series VII is also set in Starbug. Early in series VII, Rimmer departs (due to actor Chris Barrie's commitments) and is replaced by Kristine Kochanski, Lister's long-term love interest, from an alternate universe. [19] Kochanski becomes a regular character for Series VII and VIII. At the end of Series VII, we learn that Kryten's service nanobots, which had abandoned him years earlier, were behind the theft of the Red Dwarf at the end of series five. At the beginning of the eighth series, Kryten's nanobots reconstruct the Red Dwarf, which they had broken down into its constituent atoms. [20] As a consequence, Series VIII features the entire original crew of Red Dwarf resurrected (except for the already-alive Lister and Kochanski) including a pre-accident Rimmer; and the original male Holly. The series ends with a metal-eating virus loose on Red Dwarf. The entire crew evacuates save the main cast (Lister, Rimmer, Cat, Kryten and Kochanski) whose fate is unresolved in a cliffhanger ending. [21] Series IX onwards revert to the same four main characters of Series 3–6 (Lister, Rimmer, Cat and Kryten) on Red Dwarf and without Kochanski or Holly; Rimmer reappears as a hologram once again. It has not been confirmed whether the Rimmer onboard ship is the one who originally left, the revived version, or a third incarnation entirely; however, episodes have alluded to him remembering events from both previous incarnations' lives. Characters and actors [ edit] Dave Lister, played by Craig Charles, is a genial Scouser and self-described bum. He was the lowest-ranking of the 169 crew members on the ship before the accident. Lister survived the accident, as he was in stasis for smuggling an unquarantined cat on board. He has a long-standing desire to return to Earth and start a farm and/or diner on Fiji (which is under three feet of water following a volcanic eruption) but is left impossibly far away by the accident, which renders him the last (known) surviving member of the human race. [22] He likes Indian food, especially chicken vindaloo, which is a recurring theme in the series. Arnold Judas Rimmer Bsc Ssc ( Bronze swimming certificate" and "Silver swimming certificate. played by Chris Barrie, was the second-lowest-ranking member of the crew while they were all alive. He is a fussy, bureaucratic, neurotic coward who, by failing to replace a drive plate properly, is responsible for the Red Dwarf cadmium II accident that kills the entire crew (including himself) except Lister. Nevertheless, Holly chose him to be the ship's one available hologram [23] because he considered him the person most likely to keep Lister sane. During Series VII, Rimmer leaves the dimension shared by his crewmates to become his swashbuckling dimensional counterpart, Ace Rimmer. Along with the Red Dwarf ship and its crew, Rimmer is resurrected at the start of Series VIII by nanobots. He comes face to face with Death at the end of the series, whom he kicks in the groin. From Back to Earth onwards, he is once again a hologram, although to what circumstances lead to this is never elaborated. The Cat, played by Danny John-Jules, is a humanoid creature who evolved from the offspring of Lister's smuggled pet cat Frankenstein. Cat is concerned with little other than sleeping, eating, and fawning over his appearance, and tends not to socialise with other members of the crew in early episodes. He becomes more influenced by his human companions over time, and begins to resemble a stylish, self-centred human. It is later revealed that, unlike his human companions, he has a "cool" sounding pulse, six nipples, and colour-coordinated internal organs. [24] Kryten, full name Kryten 2X4B-523P (played by Robert Llewellyn from series III onwards, and as a one-off appearance in series II by David Ross) was rescued by the crew from the crashed spaceship Nova 5 in series II, upon which he had continued to serve the ship's crew despite their having been dead for thousands or even millions of years. Kryten is a series 4000 service mechanoid [25] and when first encountered by the crew, he was bound by his "behavioural protocols" but Lister gradually encouraged him to break his programming and think for himself. His change in appearance between the two actors is explained away by an accident involving Lister's spacebike and Lister having to repair him. [26] Holly (played by Norman Lovett in series I, II, VIII, and a guest appearance in each of series VII and XII; and Hattie Hayridge in series III to V) is the ship's computer. Holly has a functional IQ of 6000, although this is severely depleted by the three million years of runtime and lack of repairs. Holly is left alone after the radiation accident that kills Rimmer and the rest of the crew except for Lister and the Cat. The computer had developed "computer senility" before the radiation accident, rendering it functionally inert. The change in appearance for series III is explained by Holly having changed his face to resemble that of a computer from a parallel universe "with whom he'd once fallen madly in love. 27] Following an absence in series VI and the majority of series VII, Holly is back as his original male persona, being reset by the nanobots who stole Red Dwarf. From Back to Earth to series XII, Holly is absent once again due to Lister's bath overflowing offscreen, caused by him rushing out when hearing Kochanski had left, which got into Holly's circuity causing him to malfunction and go offline. Kristine Kochanski (originally portrayed by Clare Grogan before Chloë Annett took on the role from series VII) was initially a Red Dwarf navigation officer whom Lister had a crush on (later retroactively altered to be his ex-girlfriend) and whose memory he had cherished ever since. [22] In one episode, the crew happens upon an alternative dimension where Kochanski survived the Red Dwarf cadmium II accident. She joins Lister and the crew after the link to her own dimension collapses. [19] By the first episode of the Red Dwarf: Back to Earth specials, Lister believes her dead, but it is later revealed that Kryten (the sole witness to her "death" had lied to Lister. Kochanski had instead fled the ship in a Blue Midget when it became clear Lister's complete lack of self-respect and indulgence on excesses was slowly killing him, which greatly depressed her. Lister is advised by fans of the television series to find her in "the next series" and to make amends. Despite not making an appearance in the immediate series, she is mentioned at various points by Lister with hopes of reuniting with her. [28] Production [ edit] The first series aired on BBC2 in 1988. Twelve series have so far been produced, 17] with a feature-length special due for a 2020 release. [29] Concept and commission [ edit] The concept for the show was originally developed from the sketch series Dave Hollins: Space Cadet on the BBC Radio 4 show Son of Cliché in the mid-1980s, written by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. [30] Their influences came from films and television programmes such as Star Trek (1966) Silent Running (1972) Alien (1979) Dark Star (1974) and The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (1981. 17] but also had a large element of British-style comedy and satire thrown into the mix, ultimately moulded into the form of a sitcom. Many visual and character elements bear similarities to the Trident nuclear submarine BBC documentary Defence of the Realm. Having written the pilot script in 1983, the former Spitting Image writers pitched their unique concept to the BBC, but it was rejected on fears that a science fiction sitcom would not be popular. [30] It was finally accepted by BBC North in 1986, a result of a spare budget being assigned for a second series of Happy Families that would never arise, and producer Paul Jackson 's insistence that Red Dwarf should be filmed instead. [31] The show was lucky to be remounted after an electricians ' strike partway through rehearsals in early 1987 shut the entire production down (the title sequence was filmed in January 1987. 32] The filming was rescheduled for September, and the pilot episode finally made it onto television screens on 15 February 1988. [17] Despite the commission of further series, the cast felt like "outsiders" at the BBC. Co-creator Doug Naylor attributed this to the show getting commissioned by BBC Manchester, but filming at Shepperton Studios near where the cast lived in London. When the show won an International Emmy Award in 1994, Naylor's attempts to have the cast invited to a party thrown by the BBC proved futile when they objected to Craig Charles and Danny John-Jules 's inclusion, claiming they were "fire risks. 33] Casting [ edit] Alan Rickman and Alfred Molina auditioned for roles in the series, with Molina being cast as Rimmer. [34] 35] However, after Molina had difficulties with the concept of the series, and of his role in particular, the role was recast and filled by Chris Barrie, a professional voice-actor and impressionist who had previously worked with both the writers on Spitting Image, and with the producers on Happy Families and Jasper Carrott productions. [35] Craig Charles, a Liverpudlian "punk poet" was given the role of Dave Lister. He was approached by the production team for his opinion about the "Cat" character, as they were concerned it may be considered by people as racist. [36] Charles described "Cat" as 'pretty cool' and after reading the script he decided he wanted to audition for the part of Dave Lister. [32] Laconic stand-up comedian Norman Lovett, who had originally tried out for the role of Rimmer, was kept in the show as Holly, the senile computer of the titular ship. [36] A professional dancer and singer, Danny John-Jules, arriving half an hour late for his appointment, stood out as the Cat immediately. This was partly due to his "cool" exterior, dedicated research (reading Desmond Morris 's book Catwatching) and his showing up in character, wearing his father's 1950s-style zoot suit. [36] Writing, producing and directing [ edit] Grant and Naylor wrote the first six series together (using the pseudonym Grant Naylor on the first two novels and later as the name of their production company, although never on the episodes themselves. 37] Grant left in 1995, 17] to pursue other projects, 38] leaving Naylor to write series VII and VIII with a group of new writers, including Paul Alexander and actor Robert Llewellyn (who portrayed the character Kryten. 39] For the most part, Ed Bye produced and directed the series. He left before series V due to a scheduling clash (he ended up directing a show starring his wife, Ruby Wax) so Juliet May took over as director. [40] May parted ways with the show halfway through the series for personal and professional reasons and Grant and Naylor took over direction of the series, in addition to writing and producing. [41] Series VI was directed by Andy de Emmony, and Ed Bye returned to direct series VII and VIII. Series I, II and III were made by Paul Jackson Productions, with subsequent series produced by the writers' own company Grant Naylor Productions for BBC North. All eight series were broadcast on BBC Two. At the beginning of series IV, production moved from BBC North's New Broadcasting House in Manchester to Shepperton. [42] Theme song and music [ edit] The theme tune and incidental music were written and performed by Howard Goodall, with the vocals on the closing theme tune by Jenna Russell. The first two series used a relatively sombre instrumental version of the closing theme for the opening titles; from series III onwards this switched to a more upbeat version. Goodall also wrote music for the show's various songs, including " Tongue Tied. with lyrics written by Grant and Naylor. [43] Danny John-Jules (credited as 'The Cat' re-orchestrated and released "Tongue Tied" in October 1993; it reached number 17 on the UK charts. [44] Goodall himself sang "The Rimmer Song" heard during the series VII episode "Blue" to which Chris Barrie mimed. [45] Remastered [ edit] In 1998, on the tenth anniversary of the show's first airing (and between the broadcast of series VII and VIII) the first three series of Red Dwarf were remastered and released on VHS. The remastering included replacing model shots with computer graphics, cutting certain dialogue and scenes, 46] re-filming Norman Lovett's Holly footage, creating a consistent set of opening titles, replacing music and creating ambient sound effects with a digital master. [47] The remastered series were released in a 4-disc DVD box set "The Bodysnatcher Collection" in 2007. [48] Hiatus [ edit] Release timeline 1988 Series I and II 1989 Series III 1990 1991 Series IV 1992 Series V 1993 Series VI 1994 1995 1996 1997 Series VII 1998 1999 Series VIII 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Back To Earth 2010 2011 2012 Series X 2013 2014 2015 2016 Series XI 2017 Series XII 2018 2019 2020 Special Three years elapsed between series VI and VII, partly due to the dissolving of the Grant and Naylor partnership, but also due to cast and crew working on other projects. [38] When the series eventually returned, it was filmised and no longer shot in front of a live audience, allowing for greater use of four-walled sets, location shooting, and single-camera techniques. [49] When the show returned for its eighth series two years later, it had dropped use of the filmising process and returned to using a live audience. [50] The show received a setback when the BBC rejected proposals for a series IX. Doug Naylor confirmed in 2007 that the BBC decided not to renew the series as they preferred to work on other projects. [51] A short animated Christmas special was, however, made available to mobile phone subscribers the same year. [52] Ultimately, however, fans had to wait a decade before the series returned to television. Revival [ edit] Red Dwarf: Back to Earth [ edit] In 2008, a three-episode production was commissioned by the digital channel Dave. Red Dwarf: Back to Earth was broadcast over the Easter weekend of 2009, along with a "making of" documentary. [53] 54] The episode was set nine years after the events of " Only the Good. with the cliffhanger ending of that episode left unresolved, a situation that would continue with series X. The storyline involves the characters arriving back on Earth, circa 2009, only to find that they are characters in a TV show called "Red Dwarf. Kochanski is supposedly dead and Holly is offline due to water damage caused by Lister leaving a tap running. [55] Actress Sophie Winkleman played a character called Katerina, a resurrected hologram of a Red Dwarf science officer intent on replacing Rimmer. [56] To achieve a more cinematic atmosphere, Back to Earth was not filmed in front of a studio audience. Some previous Red Dwarf episodes had been shot in that way. Bodyswap " and all of the seventh series) but Back to Earth represented the first time that a laughter track was not added before broadcast. [57] It was also the first episode of Red Dwarf to be filmed in high definition. [55] The specials were televised over three nights starting on Friday 10 April 2009. The broadcasts received record ratings for Dave; 58] the first of the three episodes represented the UK's highest-ever viewing figures for a commissioned programme on a digital network. [59] Back to Earth was released on DVD on 15 June 2009, 60] and on Blu-ray on 31 August 2009. [61] Back to Earth was subsequently described on the series' official website as "for all intents and purposes, the 'ninth series' of Red Dwarf. 62] This placement was confirmed when Series X was commissioned and branded as the tenth series, although Back to Earth continues not to be referred to as "Series IX" on home media or digital releases. Red Dwarf X [ edit] On 10 April 2011 Dave announced it had commissioned a six-episode series X to be broadcast on Dave in late 2012. [63] 64] Filming dates for the new series Red Dwarf X were announced on 11 November 2011, along with confirmation that the series would be shot at Shepperton Studios in front of an audience. [65] Principal filming began on 16 December 2011 and ended on 27 January 2012, and the cast and crew subsequently returned for six days filming pick-ups. [66] Discounting guest stars, only the core cast of Charles, Barrie, Llewellyn and John-Jules returned for Series X, with Annett and Lovett absent, though the scripts include references to Kochanski and Holly. On 20 July 2012, a 55-second trailer for series X was released on Facebook, followed by a new teaser every Friday. [67] The new series debuted on Thursday 4 October 2012. [68] Red Dwarf XI and XII [ edit] Following series X, which attracted high viewing figures, Dave, Doug Naylor and the cast showed strong interest in making another series. During the Dimension Jump fan convention in May 2013, Doug Naylor stated that discussions were ongoing with all involved parties and while arrangements had not been finalised, he hoped shooting could begin in February 2014. [69] In October 2013, Robert Llewellyn posted on his blog, stating that "an eleventh series would happen" and that it would be "sometime in 2014. Llewellyn later removed the post from his blog and Doug Naylor issued a statement on Twitter, saying: Getting tweets claiming Red Dwarf XI is commissioned. Not true. Not yet. 70] 71] However, in January 2014 Danny John-Jules stated that the eleventh series of Red Dwarf was in the process of being written. [72] At the April 2014 Sci-Fi Scarborough Festival, during the Red Dwarf cast panel, Danny John-Jules stated that filming of the eleventh series would commence in October 2014, with an expected release of Autumn 2015 on Dave. [73] On 2 May 2015, at the Dimension Jump XVIII convention, Naylor announced that an eleventh and a twelfth series had been commissioned. The two series would be shot back-to-back towards the end of 2015 for broadcast on Dave in 2016 and 2017, respectively, 74] and would be co-produced by Baby Cow Productions, with company CEO, Henry Normal, executive producing the new episodes. [75] Series XI and XII were filmed back-to-back at Pinewood Studios between November 2015 and March 2016. [76] 77] The eleventh series premiered on UKTV's video on demand service UKTV Play on 15 September 2016, a week ahead of its broadcast transmission on 22 September. On 8 September 2017, it was announced that Red Dwarf XII would begin broadcasting on Dave on 12 October 2017, 78] and on 15 September 2017 it was further announced that each episode would preview a week earlier via the UKTV Play video on demand service, effectively meaning that series 12 would be starting on 5 October 2017. [79] Special [ edit] In late May 2019, in a radio interview, Robert Llewellyn stated that a thirteenth series was happening [80] and in June of that year, Danny John-Jules stated that it was expected to be wrapped up by the end of 2019. [81] However, in October 2019, UKTV announced that a 90-minute feature-length special would be produced instead, to be filmed from December 2019 to January 2020 [82] with location filming scheduled for November. [83] Three 60-minute documentaries were also announced to accompany it, intended to act as a retrospective of all previous 12 series. Themes [ edit] Red Dwarf was founded on the standard sitcom focus of a disparate and frequently dysfunctional group of individuals living together in a restricted setting. With the main characters routinely displaying their cowardice, incompetence and laziness, while exchanging insulting and sarcastic dialogue, the series provided a humorous antidote to the fearless and morally upright space explorers typically found in science-fiction series, 17] with its main characters acting bravely only when there was no other possible alternative. The increasing science-fiction elements of the series were treated seriously by creators Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. Satire, parody and drama were alternately woven into the episodes, referencing other television series, films and books. These have included references to the likes of 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968. 84] Top Gun (1986. 85] RoboCop (1987) Star Wars (1977) Citizen Kane (1942) The Wild One (1953) High Noon (1952) Rebel Without a Cause (1955) Casablanca (1942) Easy Rider (1969) The Terminator (1984. 86] Pride and Prejudice (1813) Isaac Asimov's Robot series (1939–1985) and the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. The writers based the whole theme of some episodes on the plots of feature films. The series III episode "Polymorph" references and parodies key moments from Alien (1979) from series IV. Camille " echoes key scenes from Casablanca (1942. 86] while " Meltdown " borrows the main plot from Westworld (1973. For series IX. Back to Earth " was partially inspired by Blade Runner (1982. 87] The series' themes are not limited to films or television, having also incorporated historical events and figures. [88] Religion also plays a part in the series, as a significant factor in the ultimate fate of the Cat race, and the perception of Lister as their 'God' both within the episode " Waiting for God. 89] whose title makes a literary reference to the Samuel Beckett play Waiting for Godot) as well as the crew meeting a man they believe to be Jesus Christ in series X episode " Lemons. The series VII episode titled " Ouroboros " derives its name and theme from the ancient mythological snake by the same name. The third episode of series VI " Gunmen of the Apocalypse " was based on the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. The series explores many science-fiction staples such as time-travel paradoxes (including the grandfather paradox) the question of determinism and free will (on several episodes) the pursuit of happiness in virtual reality and, crucially to the show's premise of Lister being the last human, the near-certainty of the human species' extinction some time in the far future. Aliens do not feature in the series, as Grant and Naylor decided very early in the process that they did not want aliens involved. This is usually addressed with Rimmer's belief in extraterrestrial life being shot down, such as a vessel he believes to be an alien ship turning out to be a garbage pod. However, there are non-human life forms such as evolutions of Earth species (e. g. the Cat race) robotic or holo-life forms created by humans, and a kind of 'Genetically Engineered Life Form. GELF) an artificially created creature. Simulants and GELFs frequently serve as antagonists among the later series of the show. [90] Hallmarks [ edit] The series developed its own distinct vocabulary. Words and phrases such as hologramatic [ sic] dollarpound, Felis sapiens, Simulants, GELF, space weevil, and Zero Gee Football appear throughout the series, highlighting a development in language, political climate, technology, evolution and culture in the future. [91] The creators also employed a vocabulary of fictional expletives in order to avoid using potentially offensive words in the show, and to give nuance to futuristic colloquial language; in particular. smeg. and variants such as "smegging. smegger" and "smeg-head" features prominently, alongside the terms "gimboid" and "goit. 92] Episodes [ edit] Ratings [ edit] Red Dwarf VIII [ edit] Episode no. Airdate Viewers BBC Two weekly ranking 1 18 February 1999 8, 050, 000 2 25 February 1999 7, 580, 000 3 4 March 1999 6, 920, 000 4 11 March 1999 5, 950, 000 5 18 March 1999 6, 760, 000 6 25 March 1999 6, 320, 000 7 1 April 1999 4, 520, 000 8 5 April 1999 4, 240, 000 Back to Earth [ edit] Episode No. Air date Dave Viewers Dave Rank Rank (cable) Dave ja vu Viewers Total Viewers 10 April 2009 2, 357, 000 385, 000 2, 742, 000 11 April 2009 1, 238, 000 366, 000 1, 604, 000 12 April 2009 1, 197, 000 245, 000 1, 442, 000 Total viewers 4 October 2012 1, 978, 000 113, 000 2, 091, 000 11 October 2012 1, 567, 000 78, 000 1, 645, 000 18 October 2012 1, 519, 000 106, 000 1, 625, 000 25 October 2012 1, 345, 000 119, 000 1, 464, 000 1 November 2012 1, 561, 000 73, 000 1, 634, 000 8 November 2012 1, 400, 000 107, 000 1, 507, 000 Red Dwarf XI [ edit] 7-day viewers 28-day viewers 22 September 2016 1, 456, 000 1, 724, 000 29 September 2016 1, 443, 000 1, 710, 000 6 October 2016 1, 144, 000 1, 310, 000 13 October 2016 1, 096, 000 1, 292, 000 20 October 2016 1, 180, 000 1, 272, 000 27 October 2016 1, 024, 000 1, 158, 000 Red Dwarf XII [ edit] 12 October 2017 1, 200, 000 1, 352, 000 19 October 2017 1, 179, 000 1, 278, 000 26 October 2017 1, 189, 000 1, 286, 000 2 November 2017 973, 000 1, 077, 000 9 November 2017 901, 000 950, 000 16 November 2017 846, 000 968, 000 Reception and achievements [ edit] Critical reactions [ edit] The changes that were made to the series' cast, setting, creative teams and even production values from series to series have meant that opinions differ greatly between fans and critics as to the quality of certain series. [17] In the "Great Red Dwarf Debate" published in volume 2 issue 3 of the Red Dwarf Smegazine, science-fiction writers Steve Lyons and Joe Nazzaro both argued on the pros and cons of the early series against the later series. Lyons stated that what the show "once had was a unique balance of sci-fi comedy, which worked magnificently. Nazarro agreed that "the first two series are very original and very funny" but went on to say that "it wasn't until series III that the show hit its stride. 86] Series VI is regarded as a continuation of the " monster of the week " philosophy of series V, which was nevertheless considered to be visually impressive. [18] Discussions revolve around the quality of series VI, seen by one reviewer as just as good as the earlier series. 18] but has been criticised by another reviewer as a descent into formulaic comedy with an unwelcome change of setting. [94] The changes seen in series VII were seen by some as a disappointment; while much slicker and higher-budget in appearance, the shift away from outright sitcom and into something approaching comedy drama was seen by one reviewer as a move in the wrong direction. [95] Furthermore, the attempt to shift back into traditional sitcom format for series VIII was greeted with a response that was similarly lukewarm. [17] There was criticism aimed at the decision to resurrect the entire crew of Red Dwarf, as it was felt this detracted from the series' central premise of Lister being the last human being alive. [20] There are other critics who feel that series VII and VIII are no weaker than the earlier series, however, 96] 97] and the topic is the subject of constant fervent debate among the show's fanbase. [17] Achievements [ edit] Although the pilot episode of the show gathered over four million viewers, viewing figures dipped in successive episodes and the first series had generally poor ratings. [98] Through to series VI the ratings steadily increased and peaked at over six million viewers, 38] achieved with the episode " Gunmen of the Apocalypse. 99] When the series returned in 1999 it gained the highest audience figures yet—over eight million viewers tuned in for series VIII's opening episode " Back in the Red: Part I. 100] The series has won numerous awards including the Royal Television Society Award for special effects, the British Science Fiction award for Best Dramatic Presentation, as well as an International Emmy Award [101] for series VI episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse" which tied with an Absolutely Fabulous episode, Hospital" in the Popular Arts category. The show had also been nominated for the International Emmy Award in 1987, 1989 and 1992. Series VI won a British Comedy Award for 'Best BBC Comedy Series. The video sales have won eight Gold Awards from the British Video Association, 102] and the series still holds the record for being BBC Two's longest-running, highest-rated sitcom. [103] In 2007 the series was voted 'Best Sci-Fi Show Of All Time' by the readers of Radio Times magazine. Editor Gill Hudson stated that this result had surprised them as 'the series had not given any new episodes this century. 104] In January 2017, series XI was voted "Best Returning TV Sitcom" and "Comedy of the Year" for 2016 by readers for the British Comedy Guide. [9] A year later Red Dwarf once again was voted "Best Returning TV Sitcom" for series XII retaining the title from British Comedy Guide. [105] Spin-offs and merchandise [ edit] The show's logo and characters have appeared on a wide range of merchandise. [37] 106] Red Dwarf has also been spun off in a variety of different media formats. For instance, the song "Tongue Tied" featured in the " Parallel Universe " episode of the show, was released in 1993 as a single and became a top 20 UK hit for Danny John-Jules (under the name 'The Cat. 44] Stage plays of the show have been produced through Blak Yak, a theatre group in Perth, Western Australia, who were given permission by Grant Naylor Productions to mount stage versions of certain episodes in 2002, 2004 and 2006. [107] 108] 109] 110] In October 2006 an Interactive Quiz DVD entitled Red Dwarf: Beat The Geek was released, hosted by Norman Lovett and Hattie Hayridge, both reprising their roles as Holly. [111] In 2005, Grant Naylor Productions and Across the Pond Comics collaborated to produce the spin-off webcomic Red Dwarf: Prelude to Nanarchy. [112] Novels [ edit] The German edition of Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers, entitled Roter Zwerg Working together under the name "Grant Naylor" the creators of the series collaboratively wrote two novels. The first, Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers, was published in November 1989, and incorporates plot lines from several episodes of the show's first two series. The second novel, Better Than Life, followed in October 1990, and is largely based on the second-series episode of the same name. Together, the two novels provide expanded backstory and development of the series' principal characters and themes. The authors began work on a sequel to Better than Life, called The Last Human, but Rob Grant was drawn away from Red Dwarf by an interest in other projects. citation needed] Still owing Penguin Publishing two more Red Dwarf novels, Grant and Naylor decided to each write an alternative sequel to Better than Life. Two completely different sequels were made as a result, each presenting a possible version of the story's continuation. Last Human, by Doug Naylor, adds Kochanski to the crew and places more emphasis on the science-fiction and plot elements, while Rob Grant's novel Backwards, is more in keeping with the previous two novels, and borrows more extensively from established television stories. [38] An omnibus edition of the first two novels was released in 1992, including edits to the original text and extra material such as the original pilot script of the TV series. [113] All four novels have been released in audiobook format, the first two read by Chris Barrie, 114] 115] Last Human read by Craig Charles, 116] and Backwards read by author Rob Grant. [117] In December 2009, Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers was released in Germany with the title Roter Zwerg ( Red Dwarf" in German. 118] List of Red Dwarf novels [ edit] Title Author(s) Infinity Welcomes Careful Drivers Grant Naylor Productions Co-authored by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor Better Than Life Last Human Doug Naylor Backwards Rob Grant Home video releases [ edit] For the initial release of the VHS editions, episodes of Red Dwarf were separated and two volumes released for each series (except series VII and VIII, which were released on three separate tapes) labelled 'Byte One' and 'Byte Two' plus 'Byte Three' for series VII and VIII. These videos were named after the first episode of the three presented on the tape, as was typical with other BBC video releases at the time. However, on occasions the BBC decided to ignore the original running order and use the most popular episodes from the series to maximise sales of the videos: for series III (the first-ever release. Bodyswap" and "Timeslides" were swapped round, so that the latter could receive top billing on the second VHS volume; for the second VHS volume of series I. Confidence and Paranoia " was given top billing, even though the original broadcast order was retained; this was due to the leading episode being "Waiting for God" which shared its name with the title of another comedy series (set in a retirement home) and for series V. Back to Reality " and " Quarantine " were given top billing on their respective video release, which completely re-organised the order of episodes from that in which they were originally broadcast. [119] Future releases would increasingly observe authenticity with the 'original broadcast' context. All eight series were made available on VHS, and three episodes of series VII were also released as special "Xtended. sic] versions with extra scenes (including an original, unbroadcast ending for the episode "Tikka To Ride" and no laugh track; 120] the remastered versions of series I–III were also released individually and in a complete box-set. [121] 122] 123] Finally, two outtake videos were released, both hosted by Robert Llewellyn in character as Kryten: Smeg Ups in 1994, and its sequel, Smeg Outs, in 1995. [124] 125] Release Episodes Year Dist. and Cat. # Red Dwarf I – Byte One – The End The End • Future Echoes • Balance of Power? BBCV 4914 Red Dwarf I – Byte Two – Confidence & Paranoia Waiting for God • Confidence and Paranoia • Me²? BBCV 4915 Red Dwarf II – Byte One – Kryten Kryten • Better Than Life • Thanks for the Memory U. S. 1988 CBS/Fox 5969 BBCV 4749 Red Dwarf II – Byte Two – Stasis Leak Stasis Leak • Queeg • Parallel Universe? CBS/Fox 5970 BBCV 4750 Red Dwarf III – Byte One – Backwards Backwards • Marooned • Polymorph? CBS/Fox 5876 BBCV 4695 Red Dwarf III – Byte Two – Timeslides Timeslides • Body Swap • The Last Day? CBS/Fox 5877 BBCV 4707 Red Dwarf IV – Byte One – Camille Camille • DNA • Justice U. 1991 CBS/Fox 5874 BBCV 4847 Red Dwarf IV – Byte Two – Dimension Jump White Hole • Dimension Jump • Meltdown? CBS/Fox 5875 BBCV 4848 Red Dwarf V – Byte One – Back To Reality Back To Reality • Demons & Angels • Holoship? CBS/Fox 8262 BBCV 5197 Red Dwarf V – Byte Two – Quarantine Quarantine • The Inquisitor • Terrorform U. 1996 CBS/Fox 8263 BBCV 5212 Red Dwarf VI – Byte One – Gunmen of the Apocalypse Psirens • Legion • Gunmen of the Apocalypse? CBS/Fox 3196 BBCV 5580 Red Dwarf VI – Byte Two – Polymorph II – Emohawk Polymorph II – Emohawk • Rimmerworld • Out of Time U. 1995 CBS/Fox 3376 BBCV 5594 Red Dwarf VII – Byte One Tikka to Ride • Stoke Me a Kipper • Ouroboros U. 1997 CBS/Fox 6452 BBCV 6789 Red Dwarf VII – Byte Two Duct Soup • Blue • Beyond a Joke? BBCV 6790 Red Dwarf VII – Byte Three Epideme • Nanarchy? BBCV 6791 Red Dwarf VII – Xtended Tikka to Ride • Ouroboros • Duct Soup • Smeg Ups UK 1997 BBCV 6285 Red Dwarf VIII – Byte One – Back in the Red Back in the Red parts 1, 2 & 3? CBS/Fox 14608 BBCV 6842 Red Dwarf VIII – Byte Two – Cassandra Cassandra • Krytie TV • Pete: Part I? CBS/Fox 14609 BBCV 6843 Red Dwarf VIII – Byte Three – Pete, Part 2 Pete, Part 2 • Only the Good... U. 1999 CBS/Fox 14626 Red Dwarf – Smeg Ups The outtakes from series IV, V & VI CBS/Fox 8375 BBCV 5406 Red Dwarf – Smeg Outs The outtakes from series I, II & III U. K. 1995 CBS/Fox 8475 BBCV 5693 DVD releases [ edit] The first eight series have since been released on DVD in Region 1, 2 and 4, each with a bonus disc of extra material and each release from series III onwards being accompanied by an original documentary about the making of each respective series. [126] Regions 2 and 4 have also seen the release of two Just the Shows, digipack box sets containing the episodes from series I–IV (Volume 1) and V–VIII (Volume 2) with static menus and no extras. [127] 128] Red Dwarf: The Bodysnatcher Collection, containing the 1998 remastered episodes, as well as new documentaries for series I and II, was released in 2007. This release showcased a storyboard construction of "Bodysnatcher" an unfinished script from 1987, which was finally completed in 2007 by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor who were working together for the first time since 1993. [48] In December 2008 an anniversary DVD set entitled Red Dwarf: All the Shows was released, reworking the vanilla disc content of the two Just the Shows sets within A4 packaging resembling a photo album, which omitted information that no extras were included. This box set was re-released in a smaller slipcase-sized box, reverting to the Just the Shows title, in November 2009. The series is also available for download on iTunes. # of discs DVD release date Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 Series I 25 February 2003 4 November 2002 3 December 2002 Series II 10 February 2003 1 April 2003 Series III 3 February 2004 3 November 2003 18 November 2003 Series IV 16 February 2004 9 March 2004 Just the Shows Vol. 1 Series 1–4 with no extras N/A 18 October 2004 12 November 2004 Series V 15 March 2005 8 November 2004 1 December 2004 Series VI 21 February 2005 6 April 2005 Series VII 10 January 2006 7 November 2005 1 December 2005 Series VIII 2 May 2006 27 March 2006 20 April 2006 The Complete Collection Series 1–8 with extras 18 5 September 2006 Just the Shows Vol. 2 Series 5–8 with no extras 2 October 2006 3 November 2006 Beat the Geek (Interactive DVD quiz game) 23 October 2006 3 March 2011 The Bodysnatcher Collection The remastered versions of series 1–3 12 November 2007 7 May 2008 Just the Smegs DVD re-issue of the VHS release Smeg Ups and Smeg Outs 19 November 2007 All the Shows Series 1–8 with no extras 10 10 November 2008 Back to Earth 6 October 2009 15 June 2009 17 December 2009 Just the Shows Series 1–8 with no extras 9 November 2009 The Complete Collection Series 1–3 (Remastered) series 4–8, Just the Smegs and Back to Earth – The Director's Cut 19 4 August 2010 Series X 8 January 2013 [129] 19 November 2012 [130] 12 December 2012 [131] Series XI 8 November 2016 14 November 2016 8 March 2017 Series XII 21 November 2017 20 November 2017 18 February 2018 Blu-ray releases [ edit] Blu-ray release date Region A Region B Region C Series I–VIII TBA 14 January 2019 [132] 31 August 2009 15 December 2009 8 January 2013 [133] 134] 19 November 2012 [135] In 2016, BBC Worldwide began creating an ' up-resed ' version of the first five series for release on Blu-ray, due to demand from Japan. [136] When asked about the project in 2017, Naylor confirmed he had stopped it due to lacklustre picture quality. [137] By 2018, the project, now encompassing the entire original run, had been restarted, 138] and a series 1–8 Blu-ray set release was confirmed in August. [139] Magazine [ edit] The Red Dwarf Magazine —the magazine part of the title changed to "Smegazine" from issue 3—was launched in 1992 by Fleetway Editions. It comprised a mix of news, reviews, interviews, comic strips and competitions. The comic strips featured episode adaptations and original material, including further stories of popular characters like Mr. Flibble, the Polymorph and Ace Rimmer. Notably, the comic strip stories' holographic characters, predominately Rimmer, were drawn in grayscale. This was at the request of Grant and Naylor, who had wanted to use the technique for the television series, but the process was deemed too expensive to produce. [140] Despite achieving circulation figures of over 40, 000 per month, 140] the magazine's publisher decided to close the title down to concentrate on their other publications. [38] A farewell issue was published, cover dated January 1994, and featured the remaining interviews, features and comic strips that were to feature in the following issues. [141] The Official Red Dwarf Fan Club produces a periodical magazine for members titled Back to Reality. The previous volume of this magazine, dating back to the 1990s, was known as Better Than Life. [142] U. version [ edit] Cast of second Red Dwarf USA pilot Despite the original version having been broadcast on PBS, a pilot episode for an American version (known as Red Dwarf USA) was produced through Universal Studios with the intention of broadcasting on NBC in 1992. [143] The show essentially followed the same story as the first episode of the original series, using American actors for most of the main roles: 144] Craig Bierko as Lister, Chris Eigeman as Rimmer, and Hinton Battle as Cat. Exceptions to this were Llewellyn, who reprised his role as Kryten, and the British actress Jane Leeves, who played Holly. It was written by Linwood Boomer and directed by Jeffrey Melman, with Grant and Naylor onboard as creators and executive producers. [145] Llewellyn, Grant and Naylor travelled to America for the filming of the American pilot after production of the fifth series of the UK series. According to Llewellyn and Naylor, the cast were not satisfied with Linwood Boomer's script. Grant and Naylor rewrote the script, but although the cast preferred the re-write, the script as filmed was closer to Boomer's version. The pilot episode includes footage from the UK series in its title sequence, although it did not retain the logo or the theme music of the UK series. During filming of the pilot, the audience reaction was good and it was felt that the story had been well received. [145] The studio executives were not entirely happy with the pilot, especially the casting, but decided to give the project another chance with Grant and Naylor in charge. [146] The intention was to shoot a "promo video" for the show in a small studio described by the writers as "a garage. 145] New cast members were hired for the roles of Cat (now depicted as female) and Rimmer, 145] Terry Farrell and Anthony Fusco, respectively. [147] This meant that, unlike the original British series, the cast was all Caucasian, which Charles referred to as "White Dwarf. 148] Chris Barrie was asked to play Rimmer in the second pilot, but he declined. With a small budget and deadline, new scenes were quickly shot and mixed in with existing footage of the pilot and UK series V episodes, to give an idea of the basic plot and character dynamics, alongside proposed future episodes, remakes of episodes from the original show. [145] Llewellyn did not participate in the re-shoot, though clips from the British version were used to show the character. Despite the re-shoots and re-casting, the option on the pilot was not picked up. [145] Farrell found work almost immediately afterwards with Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, in which she was cast as Jadzia Dax. Similarly, one year later Jane Leeves was cast in Frasier as Daphne Moon. The cast of both the British and American versions criticised the casting of Red Dwarf USA, particularly the part of Lister, who is portrayed in the British version as a likeable slob, but in the U. version as somewhat clean-cut. In the 2004 documentary Dwarfing USA, Danny John-Jules said the only actor who could have successfully portrayed an American Lister was John Belushi. In a 2009 interview on Kevin Pollak's Chat Show, Bierko said that casting him as Lister was a "huge mistake. and also said a "John Belushi-type" would have been better suited to the role. [149] The American pilot has been heavily bootlegged, but it has never been broadcast on TV in any country. Excerpts from the first pilot are included in Dwarfing USA, a featurette on the making of the pilots included on the DVD release of Red Dwarf 's fifth series. Because of rights-clearance issues, no footage from the second pilot is included in the featurette. Character UK series 1st US pilot 2nd US pilot Dave Lister Craig Bierko Arnold Rimmer Chris Eigeman Anthony Fusco Cat Hinton Battle Terry Farrell Kryten David Ross (series 2) Robert Llewellyn (series 3–) Holly Norman Lovett (series 1–2, 7–8, 12) Hattie Hayridge (series 3–5) Jane Leeves Red Dwarf: The Movie [ edit] Since the end of the eighth series in 1999, Doug Naylor has been attempting to make a feature-length version of the show. A final draft of the script was written, by Naylor, and flyers began circulating around certain websites. The flyer was genuine and had been distributed by Winchester Films to market the film overseas. [150] Plot details were included as part of the teaser. It was set in the distant future where Homo sapienoids —a race of cyborgs—had taken over the solar system and were wiping out the human race. Spaceships that tried to escape Earth were hunted down until only one remained. Red Dwarf. [151] Naylor had scouted Australia to get an idea of locations and finance costs, with pre-production beginning in 2004 and filming planned for 2005. [151] Costumes were made, including Kryten's, and A-list celebrity cameos, including Madonna, were announced. However, finding sufficient funding had been difficult. Naylor explained at a Red Dwarf Dimension Jump convention that the film had been rejected by the BBC and the British Film Council. Reasons given for the rejections were that while the script was considered to be funny, it was not ready. [152] In 2012, material from early drafts of the film was incorporated into the series X finale " The Beginning. 153] 154] In 2018, Naylor suggested production of the movie was still under consideration, The order will probably be another TV series, a stage show and possibly a movie, and I think the guys agree on that. The film is a long shot at this point just because it can take so long to get funding. 155] In late 2019, following the announcement of a feature-length special due for release in 2020, publications such as Yahoo! and The Sun began referring to it as Red Dwarf: The Movie finally seeing realization. [156] Role-playing game [ edit] Deep7 Press (formerly Deep7 LLC) released Red Dwarf – The Roleplaying Game in February 2003 (although the printed copyright is 2002. 157] Based on the series, the game allows its players to portray original characters within the Red Dwarf universe. Player characters can be human survivors, holograms, evolved" house pets (cats, dogs, iguanas, rabbits, rats and mice) various types of mechanoid (Series 4000, Hudzen 10 and Waxdroids in the corebook, Series 3000 in the Extra Bits Book) or GELFs (Kinatawowi and Pleasure GELF in the corebook, Vindaloovians" in the Extra Bits Book. A total of three products were released for the game: the core 176-page rulebook, the AI Screen (analogous to the Game Master's Screen used in other role-playing games, also featuring the "Extra Bits Book" booklet) and the Series Sourcebook. [158] The Series Sourcebook contains plot summaries of each episode from series I to VIII as well as game rules for all major and minor characters from each series. The game has been praised for staying true to the comedic nature of the series, for its entertaining writing and for the detail to which the background material is explained. [158] 159] However, some reviewers found the game mechanics to be simplistic and uninspiring compared to other science-fiction role-playing games on the market. [160] Video games [ edit] In promotion of the upcoming release of series XI, a mobile game titled Red Dwarf XI - The Game was released to coincide with the release of Twentica on 22 September 2016. Developed by GameDigits, it was intended to release episodically with new releases being based off all the episodes of XI. [161] However, it seized development following the end of its adaptation of Officer Rimmer to instead focus on developing Red Dwarf XII - The Game [162] which dropped the episodic format and instead featured minigames such as running through the corridors of spaceships featured in XII, similar to Temple Run, and free-roaming space onboard Starbug. Fan reception to the games were mixed, and by late 2019, both games were no longer available to download off Google Play. [163] Red Dwarf was featured as a hidden area in the Lego video game, Lego Dimensions. The area was featured in the game's Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them expansion pack released on 18 November 2016, where the player was able to explore a small section of the titular ship including the sleeping quarters. References to the most recent series of the show were also included such as Snacky from Give & Take making a non-speaking appearance and the bio-printer from Officer Rimmer being an interactable object. [164] Red Dwarf Night [ edit] On 14 February 1998, the night before the tenth anniversary of the show's first episode broadcast, BBC Two devoted an evening of programmes to the series, under the banner of Red Dwarf Night. The evening consisted of a mixture of new and existing material, and was introduced and linked by actor and fan Patrick Stewart. In addition, a series of special take-offs on BBC Two's idents, featuring the "2" logo falling in love with a skutter, were used. [165] The night began with Can't Smeg, Won't Smeg, a spoof of the cookery programme Can't Cook, Won't Cook, presented by that show's host Ainsley Harriott who had himself appeared as a GELF in the series VI episode " Emohawk: Polymorph II. Taking place outside the continuity of the series, two teams (Kryten and Lister versus Rimmer and Cat, although Cat quickly departs to be replaced by alter ego Duane Dibbley) were challenged to make the best chicken vindaloo. [165] After a compilation bloopers show, featuring out-takes, the next programme was Universe Challenge, a spoof of University Challenge. Hosted by original University Challenge presenter Bamber Gascoigne, the show had a team of knowledgeable Dwarf fans compete against a team consisting of Chris Barrie, Craig Charles, Robert Llewellyn, Chloë Annett and Danny John-Jules. [165] This was followed by The Red Dwarf A–Z, a half-hour documentary that chose a different aspect of the show to focus on for each letter of the alphabet. Talking heads on the episode included Stephen Hawking, Terry Pratchett, original producer Paul Jackson, Mr Blobby, Patrick Stewart and a Dalek. [166] Finally, the night ended with a showing of the episode "Gunmen of the Apocalypse. 165] YouTube Geek Week [ edit] In August 2013, YouTube held a campaign to promote user-generated content concerning science fiction, comics, gaming, and science. [167] Robert Llewellyn in-character as Kryten hosted the event's daily videoes, making references to Lister, Rimmer, and the Cat whilst presenting featured uploads. [168] Stellar Rescue [ edit] On 1 July 2019, an advert for the AA called Stellar Rescue featuring the core Red Dwarf crew premiered on ITV. The advert has Starbug break down on an inhospitable planet with Lister using the AA app to call a mechanic and successfully escape. [169] Dave Hollins: Space Cadet [ edit] Red Dwarf was originally based on Dave Hollins: Space Cadet, a series of five sketches that aired in the BBC Radio 4 series Son of Cliché, produced by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor in 1984. [170] 171] The sketches recounted the adventures of Dave Hollins (voiced by Nick Wilton) a hapless space traveller who is marooned in space far from Earth. [172] His only steady companion is the computer Hab (voiced by Chris Barrie. 173] Grant and Naylor chose to use the Dave Hollins: Space Cadet sketches as a base for a television show after watching the 1974 film Dark Star. [174] They changed some elements from the sketches: 175] The 7-trillion-year figure was first changed to 7 billion years and then to 3 million and the characters of Arnold Rimmer and the Cat were created. The name Dave Hollins was changed to Dave Lister when a football player called Dave Hollins became well known, and Hab was replaced by Holly. One of the voice actors from Son of Cliché, Chris Barrie went on to portray Arnold Rimmer in the Red Dwarf TV series. Episodes of Dave Hollins can be found on the 2-disc Red Dwarf DVD sets starting with series V and ending with series VIII. 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Retrieved 7 June 2014. ^ Lavery, David (2009. The Essential Cult TV Reader. University Press of Kentucky. p. 209. ISBN   978-0-81317-365-8. ^ McMullen, Marion (19 October 2012. The Origins Of Red Dwarf. Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved 7 June 2014. ^ Turner, Fliss (5 March 2013. Q&A with Rob Grant. Nouse. Retrieved 7 June 2014. ^ Gillam, J. D. (1 October 2012. Interview: Red Dwarf Writer / Co-Creator Doug Naylor. Starburst. Retrieved 7 June 2014. ^ Davis, Laura (10 April 2009. Cult Show Returns from Outer Space; the First Red Dwarf Series in a Decade Begins Tonight. Its Co-Writer, Doug Naylor, Speaks to Laura Davis. Liverpool Daily Post. Retrieved 7 June 2014 – via Questia. Bibliography [ edit] Dessau, Bruce (1992. ISBN   978-1-85286-456-9. Howarth, Chris; Lyons, Steve (1993. Red Dwarf Programme Guide. Virgin Books. ISBN   978-0-86369-682-4. Red Dwarf Smegazine, March 1992 - January 1994) Fleetway Editions Ltd, ISSN 0965-5603 Further reading [ edit] Alexander, Paul (1995. Red Dwarf Log No. 1996. William Heineman Ltd. ISBN   978-0-434-00370-9. Burnett, Sharon; Hooks, Nicky (1997. A Question of Smeg. Penguin. ISBN   978-0-14-027070-9. Charles, Craig; Bell, Russell (1997. The Log: A Dwarfer's Guide to Everything. ISBN   978-0-14-026862-1. Grant; Naylor (1993. Primordial Soup: The Least Worst Scripts. ISBN   978-0-14-017886-9. Grant; Naylor (1996. Son Of Soup. ISBN   978-0-14-025363-4. Grant; Naylor (1996. Scenes from the Dwarf. ISBN   978-0-14-600243-4. Hooks, Nicky; Burnett, Sharon (1994. The Red Dwarf Quiz Book. ISBN   978-0-14-023662-0. Llewellyn, Robert (1994. The Man in the Rubber Mask. ISBN   978-0-14-023575-3. Naylor, Doug; Alexander, Paul (1996. The Space Corps Survival Manual. Mandarin. ISBN   978-0-7493-2374-5. Naylor, Doug; Alexander, Paul (2000. Red Dwarf VIII Scriptbook. Virgin. ISBN   978-1-85227-872-4. Nazzaro, Joe (1994. The Making of Red Dwarf. ISBN   978-0-14-023206-6. External links [ edit] Wikiquote has quotations related to: Red Dwarf Red Dwarf at BBC Programmes Red Dwarf on IMDb Red Dwarf at British Comedy Guide Red Dwarf at The official Red Dwarf website.
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